Stem Cell Research
Int J Ophthalmol. 2016 Aug 18;9(8):1226-9. doi: 10.18240/ijo.2016.08.21. eCollection 2016.
Ya-Sha Zhou, Jian Xu,Jun Peng, Ping Li, Xiao-Juan Wen, Yue Liu, Ke-Zhu Chen,Jia-Qi Liu,Ying Wang, and Qing-Hua Peng
World J Stem Cells. 2015 Jan 26;7(1):11-26. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v7.i1.11.
Neil G Fairbairn, Amanda M Meppelink, Joanna Ng-Glazier, Mark A Randolph, and Jonathan M Winograd
Using an eye injection technique by our ophthalmologist who is specially trained in this technique called the "retrobulbar injection", stem cells are placed behind the eye, next to the optic nerve, as close as possible to the area of injury. Damage to the optic nerve typically causes permanent and potentially severe loss of vision, as well as an abnormal pupillary reflex, which is diagnostically important. The type of visual field loss will depend on which portions of the optic nerve were damaged.
The optic nerve is composed of retinal ganglion cell axons and support cells. It leaves the orbit (eye socket) via the optic canal, running postero-medially towards the optic chiasm, where there is a partial decussation (crossing) of fibres from the nasal visual fields of both eyes. The optic nerve is the second of twelve paired cranial nerves but is considered to be part of the central nervous system, as it is derived from an outpouching of the diencephalon during embryonic development. As a consequence, the fibresare covered with myelin produced by oligodendrocytes, rather than Schwann cells, which are found in the peripheral nervous system, and are encased within the meninges.